Synthesizing the Literature


Information and resources describing various types of literature reviews and how to conduct literature reviews, including evaluating articles and professional guidelines for writing and publishing reviews. Main menu | Comments/Suggestions


What is a literature review and why are there so many different kinds? Conducting a Literature Review – What is a Literature Review

Learn how to write a review of literature

Undertaking a literature review: A step-by-step approach

A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies

How to Write a Systematic Review Article and Meta-Analysis

Critically appraising the literature – Tips for reading articles and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of studies Evidence-Based Practice Step by Step: Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part I

Evidence-Based Practice Step by Step: Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part II

Evidence-Based Practice Step by Step: Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part III

Writing Center Workshop: Reading strategies to step up your research game

Critical Appraisal Tools

Understanding and critiquing quantitative research papers

Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research

How to critically appraise a research paper

Appraising the evidence: Reviewing disparate data systematically

A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews

A Conceptual Framework for Critical Appraisal in Systematic Mixed Studies Reviews

Levels of Evidence – There are many ways to discover new information, so it is important to understand how this information is different and what these differences mean A nurses’ guide to the hierarchy of research designs and evidence

The hierarchy of evidence: Levels and grades of recommendation

Levels of Evidence and their Role in Evidence-Based Medicine

Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence

Review protocols and evaluation guidelines – Based on types or articles/studies included in review and expectations for publication (author instructions and/or journal requirements) Your research faculty member can provide guidance on using these tools or evaluation guidelines based on the project you are doing:

PRISMA; PRISMA Checklist; PRISMA Flow Diagram


Cochrane Collaboration

Campbell Collaboration

Joanna Briggs Institute – Critical Appraisal Tools

BEME Collaboration

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine